Her career in film, on stage and television spanned more than fifty years. It was bookended by D. W. Griffith and Elvis Presley. She played best friend on-screen to more of the top female stars of the golden age of the American studio system than seems possible. An unconventionally beautiful woman in her own right, Una Merkel may not have been “pretty enough” to rise to stardom as a lead actress among overwhelming competition. But looking at her films, and in particular her production stills and fashion photos, this is hard to fathom. She had looks that would have easily caused a double or triple-take if she walked by on the street.
Una Merkel found instead a niche in supporting roles, particularly comedy or often comic-relief in dramas, parts that allowed such a physically attractive woman to play opposite or in support of a major female star without being overly competitive. She used her voice — a Kentucky twang that she could vary (if not completely eliminate) as the role required, along with a face that was as elastic as it was delicately beautiful, to enable her to play a variety of parts, in ensemble or support, and occasionally as the lead in “B” pictures.
In the early to mid 1930s, Una Merkel could fairly be called the hardest working woman in Hollywood, appearing in over fifty features in a half-dozen years for Fox, First National, Warner Brothers, RKO, MGM, Columbia, Universal and Paramount. She worked for legendary filmmakers such as Griffith, Ernst Lubitsch, Harold Lloyd, Raoul Walsh and William Wellman. But she is of course best known for her ability to play supporting roles, typically the best friend, advisor and confidant to many of the leading female stars of the period.
Jeanette MacDonald, Norma Shearer, Jean Harlow, Loretta Young, Irene Dunne, Myrna Loy, Madge Evans, Ann Harding and Carole Lombard all benefitted — some several times — from being able to bounce lines off the Merkel characters who were sassy, sly, knowing, sarcastic, consoling, comforting, cheery, smart or loaded, but never dumb, boring or annoying.
Una Merkel began her film career posing as a stand-in for Lillian Gish in Way Down East (1920). Undoubtedly, her general resemblance to Gish got her hired, but the fact that she was a native of Griffith’s Kentucky certainly didn’t hurt. (Some sources cite that she did the same for Griffith’s The White Rose (1923) and Gish’s classic The Wind (1928) for Victor Seastrom and MGM.) Griffith later gave her the first important role she had in the movies, as Ann Rutledge in his penultimate film, Abraham Lincoln (1930). But Merkel spent more time in the Twenties in the footlights than she did in front of the camera. Her early stage career peaked with a principal role in Coquette (1927-28) starring Helen Hayes which ran for nine months and over 300 performances on Broadway.
After her lead in “Lincoln,” Merkel settled into a series of ensemble roles — more than “support,” but less than a featured “leading lady.” In The Bat Whispers (Schenck-UA, 1930, dir. Roland West), the second film version of Daddy Long Legs (Fox, 1931, Alfred Santell) and the first Maltese Falcon (Warner Brothers, 1931, Roy Del Ruth), she stood out as an ensemble player, making one wish for her to be cast in a starring role in an “A” picture. But signing a contract with star-laden MGM in 1932 virtually guaranteed this would never happen.
Una Merkel with Chester Morris in The Bat Whispers (Schenck-UA, 1930, dir. Roland West).
Above, Ricardo Cortez is the original film private eye, “Sam Spade,” in the first version of The Maltese Falcon (WB, 1931, dir. Roy Del Ruth). As he flirts with his secretary, Effie (Una Merkel), a new client (Bebe Daniels), Below, comes calling, in need of his detective services, much to Effie’s amusement.
With MGM, Merkel continued a pattern of ensemble roles, such as Noel Coward’s Private Lives (1932) starring Norma Shearer, leads in “B” pictures such as Whistling in the Dark (1933) with Ernest Truex and two of her best “BFF” roles in Red-Headed Woman (1932) with Jean Harlow, and Midnight Mary (1933) with Loretta Young.
The latter two films are arguably the best performances of their kind for Merkel, and show her versatility even within the limits of this role-type. In Red-Headed Woman, she is paired opposite a red-and-white-hot Jean Harlow at her most incendiary — Merkel’s Sally is the sensible “gal-pal” who almost lives vicariously through her wild girlfriend’s adulterous, sexual exploits. In Midnight Mary, she is Bunny, the funny girl who gets her gorgeous but criminally inclined friend into trouble with the law, then gets herself “in trouble” with a pregnancy out-of-wedlock that inadvertently leads to Mary’s act of murder.
Above, in Red-Headed Woman (MGM, 1932), Una Merkel’s Sally comes home to find her roommate, Red (Jean Harlow) drunk and wallowing in self-pity after being rejected by her married lover, Bill. Below, unwilling to listen to Sally’s advice, she tosses Sally aside and bolts out the door to confront Bill.
In Midnight Mary, Merkel and star Loretta Young play a couple of junkyard urchins, circa 1919, who grow up too soon, and become “accessories” to prohibition-era gangsters.
Below, as a lead in a “B” picture, Whistling in the Dark (MGM, 1933, dir. Elliott Nugent), Merkel with co-star Ernest Truex (who twenty years earlier had played opposite Mary Pickford onstage in David Belasco’s A Good Little Devil).
Below, with Ginger Rogers, both in supporting roles in 42nd Street (WB, 1933, dir. Lloyd Bacon), the high-water mark of the backstage musical (Rogers’ breakout film with Fred Astaire, Flying Down to Rio, had not yet been released).
Una Merkel left MGM after her contract expired in 1937. She worked regularly, but far less frequently than she had early in her career. A series of personal setbacks in the late forties (divorce from her only husband, the suicide of her mother), combined with the retrenchment of the film industry with the rise of television, and the persistence of age discrimination endemic to Hollywood, slowed her film career. She appeared occasionally in film and in series television and returned to the stage in the mid 50s. But Merkel still had her share of late-career triumphs: a Tony nomination in 1956 for The Ponder Heart, and an Academy Award nomination for Best Supporting Actress in 1961 for Summer and Smoke, capped a lifetime in the performing arts.
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As in my brief pictorial sketch of Mary Fuller, I haven’t attempted a real bio of Una Merkel. If you are interested in learning more about her, a good biographical sketch by film historian Cliff Aliperti can be found here. A spare overview can also be had from Wikipedia.
It is regrettable that Una Merkel did not write her memoirs or, as some have done, leave her papers to an institutional archive for future historians to study. Not being a major star, this was probably something she never considered, downplaying her own importance to the history of film during the peak years of the American, “Hollywood” studio system. Though not a star, she was present at many important moments and worked with so many other important figures in cinema. What stories could she tell us of working with Jean Harlow, both early and late in the career of the Blonde Bombshell — what did she feel when during the making of Saratoga in 1937, she and her co-workers learned of Harlow’s death? It makes those of us who care strive to work that much harder to dig deeper to find and understand the people who are the history of motion pictures and the performing arts.
15 thoughts on “UNA MERKEL, a brief pictorial appreciation (1930-1933)”
Great glimpse at this wonderful film personality! Thank you!
(Just a note: the 1931 version of THE MALTESE FALCON was entitled, DANGEROUS FEMALE.)
Have you ever been approached by TCM or Robert Osborne to present some of your vast knowledge and research as part of this movie network? It would be well worth their while to pursue this possibility, as so many would learn so much about those very early years of flim, as well as the names and faces so neglected over time. How perfectly in line with their “Silent Sundays!”
Once again, many thanks for giving these celluloid stars of yesterday back their fans.
Thanks, Kenneth. I don’t think TCM lacks for people trying to give them info or get hired. It appears that “Dangerous Female” was the “TV” title for the film when the rights were sold or leased for TV broadcast. According to IMDb, “When originally sold to television in the 1950s, the title was changed to ‘Dangerous Female’, in order to avoid confusion with its illustrious remake The Maltese Falcon. After more than fifty years, Turner Classic Movies has finally restored its original title card.”
Thanks again for your encouraging comments!
Wonderful look at early Una and I especially loved the old promotional photos you chose. I so love to watch her “growing up” with Loretta Young in MIDNIGHT MARY, great selection there as well.
Finally, thank you so much for the link over to my biographical piece, I really appreciate it!
You’re welcome, and thank you! I also liked your excellent review of “Midnight Mary” which I just read after I finished this piece.
Great article and great pictures, as usual. By the way, I nominated you for The Versatile Blogger Award.
Wow. Thank you. You’re more than kind, and I really appreciate it. Thanks again!
it’s so funny because I was thinking it does not look like her at all & thinking was this when she was young? But then I realized Una was already old in the 1930s. I got the wrong lady I was looking for Una O’Connor. 🙂
thank you for sharing your time and knowledge with us. I am in my 50’s and have been in love with una merkel for about 20 years now. She is wonderful!!!! She is one of my secret obsessions. So is Freddy Bartholamew, and Margaret O’Brian, Jean Harlow, Ginger Rogers (WITH OUT FRED) and Bette Davis. Bette Davis Was my first secret obsession.
You are welcome! and thanks for commenting. I discovered Una Merkel in the films of some of my own “obsessions” — Jean Harlow, Loretta Young and Ginger (“without Fred”) Rogers. I found myself paying more attention to her than the “star” of the film. I guess that’s when you realize you have developed an “obsession.” But it doesn’t have to be a secret ! Harlow, Rogers, Davis, and many more are just so much more interesting and intense on the screen than anything I’ve seen in recent years. And now in the digital age, we obsessives can easily share our devotion publicly ! Thanks again for your comments. I’m glad you enjoyed the article as much as I did creating it.
Thank you for this. I watched the entire “Murder in a Private car”, and had Una Merkel and Mary Carlisle mixed up. Such a great movie. Great actors throughout. TCM is the greatest.
Thanks for your comment. It reminded me that I had set the DVR last night to record four or five of the films on TCM today, a birthday salute to Una Merkel. Thanks again for commenting and reading!