GOIN’ TO CALIFORNIA, 1910 and a Mountain of Dreams

"As it is in Life," Griffith, 1910

Above, tragedy comes in threes by way of "The Unchanging Sea," California at Santa Monica, 1910. At TOP, Hitchcock's "Birds?" No. Griffith's "As it is in Life," California, 1910. Almost lost in a torrent of pigeons are actors George Nicholls and Gladys Egan.

A little over eighteen months had passed since the day in June, 1908, when Henry Marvin, General Manager and one of four founding partners in 1895 of the American Biograph and Mutoscope Company, offered David. W. Griffith the job of “director” on a trial basis.  A trial which ended well when management and Griffith cemented the relationship with a written contract in August, a little more than eight weeks after completion of his first directorial project for Biograph, “The Adventures of Dollie.”  At 713 feet, lasting about 8 minutes, it is slightly longer than an average music video.

In those eighteen months since he accepted Marvin’s offer,  Griffith had made just over 200 short films. These one-reel films, the standard length of American films of the period, were 10 to 12 minutes long each, or 900-1000 ft on a reel for the longest, half that or less for shorter “split reels,” brief, sketch comedies for the most part, grouped together on single reels and sold or rented that way to exhibitors — the theater operators.

"The Moving Picture World" Beginning in 1907, this was the primary trade publication for motion picture exhibitors, distributors and producers (and also of "film and song slides," as the masthead notes. Slides were popular with exhibitors and audiences alike to fill gaps between changing reels of films, or to open each show and allow stragglers to find seats and ladies to remove their hats prior to starting the main attraction, the movies.) This issue of MPW is dated January 29, 1910, and contains an article about the Biograph Company's trek to California that month and plans for a new headquarters and film studio north of Manhattan, out in the country: The Bronx.

Toward the close of 1909, Griffith had made two of his best films to date — “The Redman’s View” and “Corner in Wheat,” shot within days of each other in November — in a year of outstanding films.  He announced to the Biograph “stock company” of actors and his technicians that he would be taking them (or at least a core group of about 30) to California in January for about two months.  Although they would be working, California would seem like a paid vacation after a brutal shooting schedule to close out 1909.  Griffith knew first hand that whatever loyalties or sentiment stage actors had toward their craft (the Biograph players were all experienced stage professionals), the stage could not match film in at least two respects:  a regular paycheck, and the ability to work outdoors in a variety of settings.

Filming in the flat farmland of Long Island. Left frame: Griffith and cinematographer G.W."Billy"Bitzer compose the frame foreground to background and create depth in the narrow confines of a small farmyard. Actors L to R, are Linda Arvidson Griffith, James Kirkwood, W.Chrystie Miller and Gladys Egan. Right frame: The iconic shot, "sowing of the wheat," with Kirkwood, Miller and their two sturdy plow horses in the distance (and a plow driver invisible behind them). Intent on keeping the foreground figure in focus, Bitzer and his camera are not yet able to keep middle and background in focus as well. D.W. Griffith, "Corner in Wheat," Biograph; shot Nov 3 and 13, 1909, released Dec 13, 1909.

Shooting a film “on location” meant country meadows, flat farmlands and small towns in New Jersey or on Long Island, picturesque woods and streams of upstate New York,  the Hudson River palisades, the Atlantic shores of Connecticut or, closer to home, Central Park or the teeming streets of Manhattan’s Lower East Side.  To fill the growing demand from exhibitors for Biograph films meant constant production of several film projects simultaneously.  The logistics of filmmaking — scouting and securing locations, devising shooting schedules and then schlepping a crew and equipment by train, ferry, truck, taxi, subway or horse-drawn carriage — were problematic even in good weather.  And even more difficult, if not impossible, during the winter months in the northeast.  And all of this was apart from the usual artistic concerns of filmmaking in 1909, or now.

Southern California at the turn of the twentieth century was a land of oranges and oil: a subtropical climate ideally suited for citrus, artichokes, avocados, dates and figs — exotic luxuries for 1909 — but also in the generally cooler climate of northern California less exotic crops: hops for flavoring beer, and grapes, especially those varieties suited for wine-making.  Even prior to the 20th century, California outpaced the wine production of the remainder of the hemisphere and was second only to the countries that ring the Mediterranean.  When an insect infestation, the phylloxera epidemic of the 1870’s,  had decimated and nearly wiped out the wine grapes of France, they were rescued by root-stock from California grape vines, roots onto which the French growers grafted the branches of their wine-grape varieties. (And while waiting for those vines to mature and bear fruit, wine-deprived French developed a taste for a green substitute, Absinthe.)

Griffith was certainly no stranger to California.  As a member of traveling companies of actors, Griffith sometimes found work there as a laborer picking hops when a traveling show company folded in the middle of a cross-country tour.  Linda Arvidson Griffith recalled with nostalgia a time when she and her future husband took work as laborers at harvest time, when acting jobs were unavailable.  She recalled it as pleasant outdoor work, but also that it was necessary to make ends meet and enable them to pay for a return trip east.   The couple had met in San Francisco in 1905.  Linda was a native of the City and she had begun her acting career there.  At the time, San Francisco was a city on the very cusp of becoming the most important American metropolis west of Chicago.  It was a city primed to become the New York of the Pacific coast, the western port of America: a center of trade, finance and culture.  Instead, in April of 1906, San Francisco nearly became an American Pompeii.  Linda, in her memoirs two decades later, describes being jostled from her bed in her San Francisco apartment in the early hours of that April morning.  The City recovered  rapidly, but lost time, population and investment money to Los Angeles which, already having the edge in climate, cheap land, agriculture and minerals (everything but a reliable source of fresh water), was able to leapfrog the City by the Bay, and never looked back.

The article from the January 29, 1910 issue of Moving Picture World announcing the California excursion of Biograph and "Lawrence" Griffith. "Lawrence" Griffith was the stage name he used as an actor, preferring to save "David" W. Griffith for his never-to-be-realized career as a playwright. The Biograph company had already arrived in California and were in already in their second day of shooting by Jan. 29 when this story appeared in the MPW.

Southern California was the answer to many of the problems faced by early film makers.  Plenty of land available for purchase to build filmmaking facilities, or to rent existing properties as temporary headquarters and film labs.  But the real value to the film maker wasn’t near-constant sunshine and warm weather, it was the variety of locations.  Incredibly diverse topography: ocean, desert, snow-capped peaks, deep valleys, palm groves, farms, ranches, small towns, shallow salt lakes, cities, and suburbs new with freshly planted rows of palm trees, wide pristine sidewalks and newly paved streets, and lonesome dusty dirt roads leading to vast open landscapes as yet untouched by civilization, and yet nearly all within a day’s drive from any location in the state at any point in time.

"Ramona," California, 1910, Camulos Ranch. Left frame: Ramona (Mary Pickford, at right) sews beneath palms, silent admirer Alessandro (HB Walthall, center background) pines. Right frame: Boys passing by flirt, and Ramona smiles. Alessandro stews.

This was the California, the southern City of Los Angeles and its environs that awaited the intrepid Biograph stock players and filmmakers in January, 1910.  And Mary Pickford, already his most valuable talent, his go-to player, had nearly balked at making the trip after Griffith turned down her request for a raise, with the suggestion that she could be replaced without trouble.  And occurring almost at the same time was the firing of actor Owen Moore, her co-worker and secret love (secret to everyone but Griffith who had threatened Moore if he “hurt that girl”).  Moore had also asked Griffith for an increase in salary, and Griffith’s response was not “you can be replaced,” as with Pickford, but rather “You’re fired.”  Griffith had suspected that Moore, in addition to being a “wastrel,” (an Old English word for “irresponsible alcoholic womanizing douchebag”), had been negotiating terms of employment with another studio.  A dangerous thing to let the boss find out, especially since he and Biograph executives had shown no hesitation or mercy six months earlier when the versatile, talented Florence Lawrence and her husband, Biograph actor Harry Solter, were discovered looking for work with a competitor studio:  He and Biograph executives immediately fired both with no discussion, no recourse.  First with Lawrence and Solter, and now with Moore, and for the remainder of his career, the loyalty of his employees was paramount and personal to Griffith.  He would always be hurt both professionally and personally when his employees were looking or left for opportunities elsewhere.

And now, Mary Pickford, with mind and emotions reeling from thoughts of California and separation from Owen Moore, emotions she would almost certainly draw upon in her remarkable performance as “Ramona” (see “postscript” below), began the westward journey in the company of her people: fellow actors.  Aside from her relatives and the occasional foster family who took her in as a child actor in a strange city, she had known closely no one but other actors.  She had crisscrossed the country in road shows many times already in her young life, as had many of the others, as had D. W. Griffith and wife Linda for years.  But this time would be different.  Instead of the constant worry about her mother, little sister and brother and when they would get their next meal or paycheck or bed for the night, she could finally sit back, relax and enjoy the ride, knowing that this road will end not in seedy boarding houses for indigent actors, or behind mildewed stage curtains in rat-infested, fire trap playhouses. But rather it will take her to open air and sunshine, with other equally thrilled actors who share the same forgettable pasts and now share futures full of hope.  And Mary Pickford — as tired as a 16-going-on-17-year-old girl can be after a decade as primary provider for a fatherless family — with younger brother Jack (old enough now to “watch over” his older sister) and her friends and fellow actors surrounding her and the countryside flying by her window, the train heads west.  To California and new worlds awaiting discovery, new lives to be made and legends as yet unwritten.

Postscript:

From January 28 through April 6, 1910, the Biograph company shot 20 one-reel films (including one film that began shooting in New York, and finished in California).  The first complete film Griffith made in California, “The Thread of Destiny,” was released March 7.  “Ramona,” filmed next to last, was the last of the California films to premier, on May 23, 1910.   Selected highlights from a few of them, with explanatory notes, follow:

The shore at Santa Monica gives Griffith and cinematographers Billy Bitzer and Arthur Marvin an opportunity to show depth and a wide field of view within limits of the standard aspect format. One wonders what they might have achieved working in widescreen. The actress at far left in both frames is Linda Arvidson Griffith,wife of D.W. During their first year at Biograph, they told no one they were married to each other. Griffith told Linda, "Let's not tell them -- it'll be better for business." Yes, D.W., monkey business. From "The Unchanging Sea," shot March 16-17, released May 5, 1910.

"The Unchanging Sea" Pacific coast, CA 1910.

Using the Pacific shore to hone his skill at composition within the frame, Griffith uses a hoary stage device, the "tableaux," and puts it into motion, while Billy Bitzer, who had first used backlighting a year earlier in snow-covered Central Park for the 1909 film, "A Politician's Romance," uses it here in "The Unchanging Sea" to create a chiaroscuro effect, a suggestion of silhouette, while keeping the near and deep field elements in focus.

Left: Ramona (Mary Pickford) admires only her knitting, unaware of Alessandro (HB Walthall). Right: Walthall expresses Alessandro's frustration, unable to get Ramona's attention. Walthall uses the unsubtle "gestural" style of acting, a style with origins in early 19th century stage melodrama. By the late 19th century it was considered obsolete for stage actors in serious dramatic works. It survived for a time in road company melodrama and, mixed with pantomime, was common to early film acting. Pickford and others, including future fellow Biograph players, Blanche Sweet and Lillian Gish, would develop and refine a more subtle acting style better suited to the close proximity of their new audience: the motion picture camera.

Filmed at the ranch and chapel made famous — and a popular late 19th century tourist destination — as the setting of an 1887 best seller, “Ramona,” by author Helen Hunt Jackson. Griffith apparently persuaded Biograph to pay ($100) for the rights to make “Ramona,” and given that a rival studio, Vitagraph, had recently been sued and lost a hefty sum by filming an unauthorized knock-off of the copyrighted novel “Ben-Hur,” Griffith and company paid for the rights, and then stayed fairly close to the novel.  The source for this information on “Ramona, and recommended for further reading, is the entry on “Ramona” by Dr. Yuri Tsivian, Chicago University, published in “The Griffith Project, Volume 4, the Films of 1910,” pp. 77-82, by the British Film Institute (2000).

Alessandro follows Ramona to the chapel. As service ends, and worshippers file out, Alessandro intercepts and startles Ramona. Rancher Felipe (H.J.Grandon), for whom Alessandro labors, is her half-brother, and he also desires Ramona! (Maybe not the same kink factor then as now? Who knows?). Felipe breaks up the awkwardness by introducing Alessandro to her. Felipe, as a successful business man, has probably made better decisions in his life. "Ramona," Griffith/Biograph. 1910.

After introducing Ramona to Alessandro her expression softens; BELOW: the two men leave to do whatever ranchers and their field-hands do on Sunday mornings after church in 1910. In California.

Beginning in the frame at right, then continuing below in the next two sets of images, see the quiet fireworks of subtle, early silent film acting by someone who created within the new art form cinema, a new form of expression: film acting.

In the three frames above and the three below, we see Mary Pickford's Ramona watch Alessandro (who just seconds earlier had frightened her with his awkward attempt to meet her) depart. And then her reaction, registering in her face, changes from neutral to smile and then suddenly a nearly shocking, intensity of feeling that causes her to visibly GASP, close her eyes in disbelief, and then . . .(BELOW . . .)

As Ramona/Mary opens her eyes her mouth forms a nearly audible "ohhhhhh!" as she feels something entirely new, caused by the sight of a man she met only seconds ago . . then, trying to collect and control herself, she clasps her hands together and raises them upward as if in prayer ?. . . asking for . . forgiveness for her thoughts ? or . . for Alessandro?

For “Ramona” yes, she desires Alessandro.  But for Mary Pickford herself, no. My guess would be Owen Moore, who had been fired by Griffith, and from whom she would be separated in California. Moore was almost certainly her first love.  (At the end of her first day at Biograph eight months earlier Griffith asked her to have dinner with him — her response was that she had never even been out with a boy, much less an older man — and he was married, although she didn’t know this.)  Only 16, never knowing her father or any man in a trusting caring relationship, having been the primary support for her mother and two siblings since she was 7, and with the scrutiny she received at home and work, they would have had little time alone — she was very likely still a virgin. I think her performance here was essentially, “method acting circa 1910,” with Owen Moore as the motivation, the catalyst for this scene for Mary’s Ramona.  And Griffith, well aware of all of this, may have used it to draw this performance from her.  It was a method he sometimes employed to increase the intensity of an actor’s performance, especially with his actresses.  Mary would turn 17 shortly after she returned to New York from California, and would elope with and marry Moore secretly — secret even from her mother and siblings — less than a year later, in January 1911.  A mistake, she would later admit.  And one of the two or three biggest mistakes of her life.

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About Gene Zonarich

I'm the King of the silent pictures -- I'm hidin' out 'til talkies blow over . . .
This entry was posted in Acting, California, Classic Hollywood, D. W. Griffith, Film History, Mary Pickford and tagged , , , , , , . Bookmark the permalink.

8 Responses to GOIN’ TO CALIFORNIA, 1910 and a Mountain of Dreams

    • Thanks for the referral to that site. It would have been great to have pictures like those to illustrate my post on Griffith in California and the making of “Ramona.” (Also, his recent post on blues icon Robert Johnson reminded me that I’ve been meaning to do a post also on that fascinating story, so today I did!)

  1. I’ve never seen a Mary Pickford movie in which she wasn’t completely natural and convincing. She’s been described dismissively in movie histories, as though she were a saccharine American Sweetheart, so it came as a real surprise to see her boyishness, and the awkwardness or bumptiousness she assumed in some roles. I think I’ve seen several movies in a row now in which she tackles men three times her size and fights them to a standstill.

    • Most people who actually watch her films have a similar reaction. The problem with most histories, at least those written before the 1990s when several biographies and retrospective studies were written and her films became widely available, was that the “historians” generally had not seen her films, and tended to repeat the equally uninformed opinions of others. Two main reasons for this: 1) Pickford withdrew all of her silent films from circulation, and for the most part they were not available for screening until after her death in 1979; 2) many writers and historians who grew up with movies in the 1930s and 40s had a natural bias against silent film, and what they’d perceived as the “sentimentality” of those films, especially Pickford, despite having never seen them. A lie repeated often enough and uncontradicted becomes accepted as truth. That’s what happened to Mary Pickford and only recently has that distorted view finally been contradicted. But you’ll still find many so-called “classic movie” fans who have an aversion to Pickford (or even silent film in general), and silent movie fans who still haven’t bothered to watch Pickford’s films because of this pervasive image of Pickford as some sort of retrograde, anti-feminist woman masquerading as a child when, in reality, such an image could not be further from the truth. I’m glad you liked the article. Thanks!

      Just one more thought on the subject: If you look at how her contemporaries viewed Pickford, the trade periodicals, movie magazines and newspapers in general, you’ll find that she was held in high regard throughout her career. Those who knew her work appreciated it, much as those of us who are only now rediscovering it.

  2. rangerdon says:

    Does someone have a list of filming locations used by DWG in Southern California? I know Ramona was filmed at Rancho Camulos, but wondered about locations. Thanks.

    • rangerdon,

      Griffith’s filming locations can be found in two sources that I have used extensively, “D. W. Griffith and the Biograph Company” by Graham, Higgins, et al. (1993) and in the monumental series, “The Griffith Project”, vols 1 thru 12. Both list locations for each production, based largely upon Biograph records found in the D. W. Griffith Papers at MoMA in NYC, which include the “Cameraman’s Register” covering the period ending with November 1911. The “Cameraman’s Register” contained a detailed record of shooting dates and locations for each production, obviously including those in the California trips of 1910 and 1911. They aren’t all that specific, often citing general locations such as “Santa Monica,” “Redondo” or “San Gabriel.”

      Hope this helps. Thanks for reading and commenting!

      Gene.

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